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Cervical Cancer Screening and Information
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women. In the
ages 35 to 39 and those from ages 60 to 64. Early detection is the key to
treatment and survival.
Cervical cancer is a cancer of the cervix, or the organ that connects the
uterus to the vagina. It is almost always caused by the human
papillomavirus (HPV), which up until recently was a little-known virus. It has
since become a household name. This is a sexually transmitted virus that
affects the mucous membranes in humans. HPV is spread through sexual
skin-to-skin contact. Penetration is not necessary to spread the virus. Men
The only way to prevent HPV is to abstain from sexual contact. In recent
years a vaccine has been approved for the prevention of HPV. Early
detection of cervical cancer is also essential. This is obtained through a
PAP test. The incidence of cervical cancer has decreased in developed
countries around the world because of an increase in the use of
screenings and appropriate follow-up treatment.
The PAP test or PAP smear is named after Dr. George Papanicolaou who
first developed the test. A sample of cervical cells are taken and observed
under a microscope.
A woman can have HPV for years and not know it. It stays in the body and
can lead to cervical cancer years after infection. There are often no
symptoms of HPV or cervical cancer, therefore PAPs are the single best
way to detect it. If there are any symptoms, they may include unexplained
bleeding or pain.
If cervical cancer is caught early, it can usually be treated successfully. A
woman may still be able to have children even after the cancer is caught
early enough. However, most treatments for cervical cancer make a woman
unable to have children afterward. Depending upon the stage of cancer
treatments may include:
- Cone biopsy to remove the cancer
- Simple hysterectomy to remove the uterus and cervix
- Hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal
of both ovaries and fallopian tubes
- Radiation therapy, using high-dose X-rays or implants in the vaginal
cavity to kill cancer cells
Regular pelvic examinations and PAP tests can save a woman’s life and
prevent cervical cancer from developing. Women with any unusual
symptoms should not hesitate to speak with their doctor. AT102131
, with more than 640,000 cases reported during the 13 years from 2004 through 2016.
Nine new germs spread by mosquitoes and ticks were discovered or introduced into the
United States during this time.
• A total of 642,602 cases of disease caused by the bite of an infected mosquito, tick, or
flea were reported in the U.S. and its territories from 2004 through 2016.
• The number of reported tickborne diseases more than doubled in 13 years and
accounted for more than 60 percent of all reported mosquito-borne, tickborne, and flea-
borne disease cases. Diseases from ticks vary from region to region across the U.S. and
those regions are expanding.
• From 2004 through 2016, seven new germs spread through the bite of an infected tick
were discovered or recognized in the U.S. as being able to infect people.
• Reducing the spread of these diseases and responding to outbreaks effectively will
require additional capacity at the state and local level for tracking, diagnosing, and
reporting cases; controlling mosquitoes and ticks; and preventing new infections; and for
the public and private sector to develop new diagnostic and vector control tools.
What can everyone do to protect themselves from mosquito, tick, and flea bites?
• Use an Environmental Protection Agency-registered
insect repellent. [http://bit.ly/2tIJyLl]
• Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
• Treat items, such as boots, pants, socks, and tents, with permethrin or use permethrin-
treated clothing and gear.
• Take steps to control ticks and fleas on pets.